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Bladder Cancer

bladder cancer, bladder cancer surgery, bladder cancer treatment, bladder cancer causes, Symptoms

Bladder cancer is where a growth of abnormal tissue, known as a tumour, develops in the bladder lining. In some cases, the tumour spreads into the bladder muscle.

What is Bladder Cancer?

Bladder Cancer is a type of cancer that begins in your bladder most often in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. It typically affects adults, though it can occur at any age. 

Bladder Cancer Types

  • Carcinoma in Situ is a type of non-invasive bladder cancer that appears as a flat, red area in the bladder. CIS can grow quickly, and if it is not treated effectively, there is a high risk that CIS will develop into an invasive bladder cancer also.
  • Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer.. Cancer generally starts in cells, called transitional cells, in the bladder lining (urothelium). Few bladder cancers also start as a harmful tumor that grows into the muscle wall of the bladder. Others begin at a non-invasive stage that involves only the inner lining of the bladder. This is early (superficial) bladder cancer. Some non-invasive cancers develop into invasive bladder cancer.
  • Rarer Types of Bladder Cancer include squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell cancers start from a different kind of cell in the bladder lining. Adenocarcinoma starts with epithelial cells. These two types of bladder cancer are generally harmful.
  • Papillary Cancer is a form of early bladder cancer. It appears as mushroom-like growths or as leaf-shaped like seaweed (fronds). Few people may have both CIS and papillary cancer.

Treatments

    • Chemotherapy procedure is the use of strong drugs to destroy cancer. In bladder cancer, chemotherapy may be given alone or with surgery. And also with radiation therapy or both. Chemotherapy can usually be given as day-care procedure, but it may require a stay in the hospital.
    • Radiation Therapy is a high-energy ray that kills cancer cells and normal cells in its path. For small muscle-invasive bladder cancers, radiation may be given. It is commonly used as an alternative approach to surgery.
    • Transurethral Resection with Fulguration is a surgery. A device (resectoscope) is placed via the urethra into the bladder. A small wire loop on the end of the instrument then removes the tumor by cutting it or burning it with electrical current (fulguration). Generally performed for the early diagnosis of bladder cancer. And also for the treatment of stages Ta and T1 cancers.
    • Segmental or Partial Cystectomy is a surgery. A segment of the bladder is removed. Usually conducted for low-grade tumors that have occupied the bladder wall but restricted to a small area of the bladder.
    • Radical Cystectomy is a surgery. The whole bladder is removed, and also its surrounding lymph nodes as well as other structures that may carry cancer. Usually performed for cancers that have at least invaded into the muscular layer of the bladder wall. And also for more superficial cancers that expand over more of the bladder. Or that did not respond to more timid treatments.

Symptoms

  • Frequent urination.
  • Blood or blood clots in the urine.
  • Lower back pain on 1 side of the body.
  • Pain or burning sensation during urination.
  • Feeling the need to urinate many times throughout the night.
  • Feeling the need to urinate, but not being able to pass urine.

Causes

  • Smoking
  • Gender
  • Increasing age
  • Food and drink
  • Other chemicals
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Repeated bouts
  • Ethnic background
  • Previous radiotherapy or chemotherapy
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