Bladder Cancer


bladder cancer, bladder cancer surgery, bladder cancer causes

The bladder is a balloon-like muscular, hollow organ that gathers and stores urine. It is in the lower part of the abdomen (the pelvis).

What is Bladder Cancer?

Bladder Cancer is a type of cancer that begins in your bladder most often in the cells that line the inside of the bladder. Bladder cancer typically affects adults, though it can occur at any age. 

Types of Bladder Cancer

  • Transitional Cell Bladder Cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer also known as urothelial carcinoma. Cancer generally starts in cells, called transitional cells, in the bladder lining (urothelium). Few bladder cancers also start as a harmful tumor that grows into the muscle wall of the bladder. Others begin at a non-invasive stage that involves only the inner lining of the bladder. This is early (superficial) bladder cancer. Some non-invasive cancers develop into invasive bladder cancer.
  • Carcinoma in Situ is a type of non-invasive bladder cancer that appears as a flat, red area in the bladder. CIS can grow quickly, and if it is not treated effectively, there is a high risk that CIS will develop into an invasive bladder cancer also.
  • Papillary Cancer is a form of early bladder cancer. It appears as mushroom-like growths or as leaf-shaped like seaweed (fronds). Few people may have both CIS and papillary cancer.
  • Rarer Types of Bladder Cancer include squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell cancers start from a different kind of cell in the bladder lining. Adenocarcinoma starts from epithelial cells. These two types of bladder cancer are generally harmful.

Treatments

  • Radiation Therapy is a high-energy ray that kills cancer cells and normal cells in its path. For small muscle-invasive bladder cancers, radiation may be given. It is commonly used as an alternative approach to surgery.
  • Chemotherapy procedure is the use of strong drugs to destroy cancer. In bladder cancer, chemotherapy may be given alone or with surgery. And also with radiation therapy or both. Chemotherapy can usually be given as day-care procedure, but it may require a stay in the hospital.
  • Transurethral Resection with Fulguration In this surgery, a device (resectoscope) is placed via the urethra into the bladder. A small wire loop on the end of the instrument then removes the tumor by cutting it or burning it with electrical current (fulguration). Generally performed for the early diagnosis of bladder cancer. And also for the treatment of stages Ta and T1 cancers. Often, after transurethral resection, additional treatment is given (for example, intravesical therapy) to help treat the bladder cancer.
  • Radical Cystectomy In this surgery, the whole bladder is removed, and also its surrounding lymph nodes as well as other structures that may carry cancer. Usually performed for cancers that have at least invaded into the muscular layer of the bladder wall. And also for more superficial cancers that expand over more of the bladder. Or that did not respond to more timid treatments. Occasionally, the bladder is removed to reduce critical urinary problems.
  • Segmental or Partial Cystectomy In this procedure, a segment of the bladder is removed. Usually conducted for low-grade tumors that have occupied the bladder wall but restricted to a small area of the bladder.

Symptoms

  • Low back pain
  • Blood in your urine
  • Pain when you urinate
  • A frequent urge to urinate

Causes

  • Smoking
  • Gender
  • Increasing age
  • Food and drink
  • Other chemicals
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Repeated bouts
  • Ethnic background
  • Previous radiotherapy or chemotherapy